Vanillic acid is a benzoic acid derivative used as a flavoring agent. It is an oxidized form of vanillin produced during the conversion of vanillin to ferulic acid. The highest quantity of vanillic acid in plants has been found in the roots of Angelica sinensis, which is used in traditional Chinese medicine. Various studies have provided evidence of the effectiveness of vanillic acid in the management of immune or inflammatory responses.
For instance, vanillic acid enhanced the activity of human lymphocyte proliferation and secretion of interferon-gamma in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Another study has shown that vanillic acid has a hepatoprotective effect through its suppressive action on immune-mediated liver inflammation in concanavalin A-induced liver injury. However, it remains to be determined whether vanillic acid has an anti-colitic effect.
A study on was done to determine whether vanillic acid has beneficial effects against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis. The results showed that vanillic acid reduced the severity of the clinical signs of DSS-induced colitis, including weight loss and shortening of colon length, and the disease activity index. The results of this study showed that vanillic acid significantly suppressed the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and the activation of transcription nuclear factor-B p65 in DSS treated colon tissues.
In addition, we observed that the plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-6 were higher in the DSS-treated group than in the control group, but these increased levels were reduced by the administration of vanillic acid. Taken together, these findings suggest that vanillic acid has a beneficial effect on DSS-induced ulcerative colitis, thereby indicating its usefulness in the regulation of chronic intestinal inflammation.